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Why Use Java DB For Web Client Storage?

Posted by davidvc on November 17, 2006 at 4:28 PM PST

I've been wanting to write about the value of a relational database
(and Java DB in particular) when implementing local storage
in web clients. The announcement of Zimbra's offline support and the dialog on their blog of why they chose Derby over has motivated me to get these thoughts out there.

Why would you
want to use a relational database (and particularly Java DB) for local storage rather than other
solutions, such as the WHATWG API implemented in Firefox 2.0 or
the package
, which provide a simpler key/value storage mechanism?Here are some of the key benefits of using a relational

  • Transactions - most relational databases implement
    transactional semantics. This means that operations on your data
    are done in such a way that they are ACID - Atomic, Consistent,
    Isolated, and Durable. Transactional semantics ensure that your
    data is not corrupted, lost, or viewed in inconsistent ways. Like
    backups, often this doesn't seem important, and then it becomes very
  • Queries - one of the key values of a relational model
    is the ability to issue dynamic queries over your data set. Without
    a relational query engine, you will have to build your own query
    functionality yourself.
  • Joins - Joins let you take two tables in a
    query and "join" them together to get a view of your data
    that looks like a new table. Without this
    feature, applications end up being locked in to a particular data
    model and it's very difficult to create and manipulate new views
    of data. Joins also allow you to avoid duplication of data across
    multiple tables.
  • Caching - Most relational databases implement data
    caching for you, bringing significant performance savings. Depending
    on which key/value storage API you use, you may find yourself having
    to implement your own caching depending on your performance needs.

  • Indexes - also called access methods, indexes
    allow quick access to data for common access patterns. A key/
    value model has a single index you get for free. If you
    want secondary indices, you have to build them yourself.

  • Well-established standards - Using well-established
    standards like SQL and JDBC avoids vendor lock-in and expands the pool
    of engineers who will have the skills needed to work on your code

Why Java DB / Apache Derby?

Java DB is Sun's supported distribution of Apache Derby. Java DB
is very well suited to serve as the local store for web clients
for a number of reasons:

  • 100% Java - This means portability. Java DB even runs
    on the CDC (Connected Device Configuration) profile of the Java 2 Micro Edition
    (J2ME). This means your application will be able to play
    in the mobile space if and when that becomes an opportunity for you.
  • Small footprint - Java DB is a single jar file with a runtime
    footprint of 2MB. Using
    it can be compressed down to 700K. Pretty impressive for a fully functional relational database.
  • Transactional - Not all relational databases are created
    equal. Some trade off size and speed for potential loss or
    corruption of data. Java DB supports full transactional semantics.
  • Embeddable and Zero Administration - Java DB can run embedded
    in the same VM as your application (and thus embedded in the
    browser's VM too). It also in most cases can be brought up without
    any administration - your first connection to the database automatically
    boots it up. Recovery and upgrade are also automatic. This is key
    when you're trying to provide a solution that is used by consumers
    or naive users and you don't even want them to know there's a database
    under the covers.

There are lots of situations where a simple key/value storage mechanism
works just fine. It is simple, easy to understand, and you can generally get productive sooner. But when making a decision, look at your current
and future requirements and make sure that key/value is going
to meet your needs.