Eric Spiegelberg on Avoiding MVC Controller Bloat
We've just published Eric Spiegelberg's new article, "Using a Service Delegate to Avoid MVC Controller Bloat". Eric is a Minneapolis-based Java EE consultant. This is the sixth article he has contributed to java.net.
In his new article, Eric addresses the problem of "controller bloat" -- by which he means the tendency for code that does not belong in the controller in an MVC application to creep into it, as developers rush to get the job done, take what appear to be short cuts, and generally get lax about rigorously applying the principles of separation of concerns.
while the creators of frameworks and tools must invest a great deal of attention and focus on design, application developers can afford to be more lax. A classic example of the design gap is what I call controller bloat. In the case of web applications, controller bloat occurs when application developers violate separation of concerns and put non-web service code directly into their web MVC framework's controllers.
If you've been involved with software engineering for a while, say, at least five years, you're familiar with the problems that violation of separation of concerns creates. The code becomes difficult to read, difficult to maintain, and the possibility of its reuse is significantly diminished because multiple functions are embedded into, interwoven within, a single block of code. This situation can exist within the realm of pretty much any type of software development, not just in the Java MVC world.
Eric provides example code that illustrates the problem, using Spring MVC and a web MVC controller. It's not that the example code won't "work" -- sure, it would perform the function it was designed to perform. As Eric explains:
While the above code sample is functional, it does exhibit a major design problem: service code (i.e., your business logic) is unnecessarily located within the controller itself. The majority of the code within the handleRequestInternal method has nothing to do with the web tier and therefore violates separation of concerns. This leads to a handful of cascading disadvantages. Because the code lives in a class directly depending on the web tier, it can't be easily reused within non-web-based applications. Next, just as the code is difficult to reuse outside of a web-based application, it is difficult to unit test. While there is a plethora of options such as using mock objects or sophisticated strategies such as hot deploying code to running application servers and automated remote unit tests, that fact that your service coded is coupled to your presentation tier complicates both its testing and its reuse.
Eric goes on to discuss, and illustrate via code snippets, a solution: namely, creating a service delegate, so that the service code is extracted from the controller. This service delegate then becomes a reusable service, because it's now decoupled from your MVC controller. Furthermore, your web service tier itself gains flexibility:
Your MVC selection no longer needs to be a strategic or organization-wide decision because switching, or even using a separate MVC framework per application, is now trivial. Each application you create now has the freedom and flexibility to use the best framework for the given requirements and technical circumstances.
The thing about this situation that often trips up junior programmers is that mixing service code with web code doesn't necessarily seem inefficient, if you're just focussing on the specific task you need to get done today. But, a project lead or architect necessarily takes the longer-term view. Code written today isn't just for today. A year from now, you don't want to have to reinvent the same wheel you invented nine months ago and last week.
Eric cites additional benefits for the development team:
It doesn't scream for your attention, but another subtle benefit is that this design makes it easier for new team members or less experienced developers to join and contribute to your project. For a multitude of reasons, not all developers can jump head first into an existing system and make substantial contributions right away. By having your layers and your complexity cleanly separated, you can have a particular developer work on an individual area where they are strongest or most comfortable, while they gain experience with or knowledge of a different part of the system.
Eric concludes "Using a Service Delegate to Avoid MVC Controller Bloat" with:
While sample code demonstrating the design used Spring Web MVC for a Java based web application, the concepts presented universally apply to all types of applications as well as software created in any language for any platform. Because any time you emphasis good design, the end result is that your code will be easier to understand, develop, test, reuse, and maintain.
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